Saturday, May 23, 2020

Euthanasia The Right to Die Essay - 1661 Words

Euthanasia, which is also referred to as mercy killing, is the act of ending someone’s life either passively or actively, usually for the purpose of relieving pain and suffering. â€Å"All forms of euthanasia require an intention to accelerate death in order to benefit patients experiencing a poor quality of life† (Sayers, 2005). It is a highly controversial subject that often leaves a person with mixed emotions and beliefs. Opinions regarding this topic hinge on the health and mental state of the victim as well as method of death. It raises legal issues as well as the issue of morals and ethics. Euthanasia is divided into two different categories, passive euthanasia and active euthanasia. â€Å"There are unavoidable uncertainties in both active and†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"Active euthanasia defines the practice where death is caused by direct administration of a lethal substance† (Sayers, 2005). Dr. Jack Kevorkian is a physician well known for his c ases of physician assisted suicide. â€Å"In his writings and statements, Kevorkian advocates a society that allows euthanasia for the dying, the disabled, the mentally ill, infants with birth defects and comatose adults; and he sanctions experiments prior to their death and organ harvesting.† (Betzold, 1997). Many other physicians and also nurses have performed euthanasia causing public alarm that some cases are actually murder. In one such case a physician and his nurse, Dr. James Gallant decided to take a Ms. Clarietta Day life into his own hands: â€Å"Day collapsed on the phone while calling 911 in the early morning of March 22. She was taken to the hospital and diagnosed with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (burst blood vessel in the brain), a condition that is invariably fatal. Sometime before she died, Day had filled out an advance directive, which included instructions from August 1995, in which she wrote that should she become unconscious, she wished to be kept alive fo r at least forty-eight hours. However, following the diagnosis, Day received painkillers every five to ten minutes for a four-hour period, even though there was no documentation that Day was in discomfort or agitated. She was removed from a respirator and had a magnet applied to herShow MoreRelatedEuthanasia: Your Right to Die632 Words   |  3 PagesToday there are five to ten thousand comatose patients in long term care facilities (Wheeler A1). There are countless elderly people in care facilities that have repeatedly expressed a desire to die. There are countless terminally ill patients that have also begged for death. Should these people be allowed to die, or should they be forced to keep on living? This question has plagued ethicists and physicians throughout the years. In the Netherlands, courts have begun to permit the administration ofRead MoreEuthanasia and the Americans Right To Die Essay706 Words   |  3 PagesEuthanasia and the Americans Right To Die ...no-one is truly free to live, until one is free to die. -Martin Luther King The issue of euthanasia has been hotly debated in America over the past several years. Like drug decriminalization and abortion, such personal liberty issues can be seen from a multitude of viewpoints, and public opinion varies widely. Recent events concerning euthanasia have brought this issue to a higher level of visibility and raised the publics awarenessRead MoreEuthanasia: We Have the Right to Die1096 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"A person has the constitutional right to request the withdrawal or withholding of a medical treatment, even if doing so will result in the person’s death† (Assisted Suicide). So why is there not, and should there not be a right in some states and countries for those who are near death and know they will die to want to end their life. Even during the Ancient Roman times, the idea of Assisted Suicide was accepted â€Å"If caused from pain or sickness, or by weariness of life† (Assisted Suicide). WithRead MoreEuthanasia: We Have the Right to Die Essay872 Words   |  4 PagesWhat is euthanasia? The dictionary defines euthanasia as the act of putting to death or allowing to die painlessly, a person or animal from a painful incurable disease. Euthanasia is also known as mercy killing. The word euthanasia comes from the Greek word eu- meaning good and the Greek word thanatos which means death. There are two types of euthanasia: active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. Active euthanasia is the practice of ending the life of a person painlessly. While passive euthanasia is theRead MoreEssay about Euthanasia is Our Right to Die1364 Words   |  6 PagesEuthanasia is Our Right to Die By ruling euthanasia illegal, Americas justice system is violating one of our most natural rights, our freedom of choice. In all respects, the right to die is as natural as the right to live. Websters dictionary defines euthanasia as an easy and painless death or an act or method of causing death painlessly. Euthanasia, when administered correctly and under the right conditions can be a humane and moral procedure. There are so many misconceptions and clichesRead MoreArgument Analysis: Euthanasia and the Right to Die Essay1035 Words   |  5 PagesThe right to die and euthanasia, also known as physician-assisted suicide, have long been topics of passionate debate. Euthanasia is simply mercy killing while the phrase â€Å"physician-assisted suicide† regards the administering or the provision of lethal means to aid in the ending of a person’s life. The right to die entails the belief that if humans have the governmental and natural right to live and to prolong their lives then they should also have the right to end their life whenever desired.Read MoreEssay on Euthanasia: We All Have the Right to Die1306 Words   |  6 Pages Physician-Assisted Suicide, or Euthanasia, is a serious issue, and it affects people throughout all walks of life. From teenagers with angst, to older adults feeling hopeless in their life, to the elderly suffering from terminal illnesses, suicide pervades throughout their thought processes as an alternative to their emotionally and physically pervasive situations. Euthanasia, or physician-assisted suicide, has a history dating back to the seventeenth century. Only recently has it become as controversialRead MoreDo You Think That the Right to Life Entails a Right to Die Under Certain Circumstances? Should the Law Be Changed to Grant a Universal Right to Voluntary Euthanasia?1000 Words   |  4 Pagesthat the right to life entails a right to die under certain circumstances?† and â€Å"Should the laws be changed to grant a universal right to voluntary euthanasia?†. In this essay, I am going to give reasons using ethical theories to justify these questions. Euthanasia Euthanasia is the act of a physician or other third party ending a patients life in response to severe pain and suffering. Euthanasia can be classified into three types. They are voluntary euthanasia, non-voluntary euthanasia and involuntaryRead MoreDo You Think That the Right to Life Entails a Right to Die Under Certain Circumstances? Should the Law Be Changed to Grant a Universal Right to Voluntary Euthanasia?1008 Words   |  5 Pagesthat the right to life entails a right to die under certain circumstances?† and â€Å"Should the laws be changed to grant a universal right to voluntary euthanasia?†. In this essay, I am going to give reasons using ethical theories to justify these questions. Euthanasia Euthanasia is the act of a physician or other third party ending a patients life in response to severe pain and suffering. Euthanasia can be classified into three types. They are voluntary euthanasia, non-voluntary euthanasia and involuntaryRead MoreEuthanasia Should Be Legalized For Terminally Ill People1064 Words   |  5 PagesThe word euthanasia has a Greek meaning â€Å"the good death. On the other hand, in the society today, there are deeper and more meanings to euthanasia than before. Voluntary euthanasia concerns itself with the consent of the person to die through the assistance of others. Voluntary euthanasia can be divided into two areas: passive voluntary witch is holding back medical treatment with the patient’s request, active voluntary killing the patient at that patient s request informing the assistant on how

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Transformation of a Woman - Ibsens a Dolls House

The Transformation of a Woman In Henrik Ibsen’s play, A Doll’s House, the character of Nora Helmer is a woman who undergoes a profound life revelation that results in her becoming a woman with a belief structure and understanding of self that is far ahead of her time. At the beginning of the play, Nora thinks as a woman of her era; her identity is formed as her father’s daughter and continued as a wife to Torvald Helmer. At the end of the play Nora â€Å"discovers her individuality then walks out on her husband† (Ramsden). A primary theme of the play is that Nora is a doll that is living in a doll’s house. (Alexander 381--390) The entire play is set in one room of the Helmer household. This reinforces the sense that Nora is†¦show more content†¦Once Helmer discovers Nora’s deceit she hopes he will see the sacrifice that she has made, telling him â€Å"I have loved you above everything else in the world†. Instead he cries out, â€Å"she who was my joy and pride—a hypocrite, a liar—worse, worse—criminal!† His concern is only for himself, pronouncing â€Å"Now you have destroyed all my happiness. You have ruined all my future.† He worries, â€Å"I may be falsely suspected of having been a party to your criminal action. Very likely people will think I was behind it all—that it was I who prompted you.† He tells Nora she must stay in the home to uphold the appearances of marriage â€Å"but naturally only in the eyes of the world†, and that she will not be allowed to raise the children. Upon realizing they are free of exposure Helmer instantly does a complete reversal in his outrage towards Nora, telling her, â€Å"I have forgiven you everything. I know that what you did, you did out of love for me.† But it is too late for Nora. A Doll’s House becomes an astoundingly radical play about women’s historical transition from be ing generic family members (wife, sister, daughter, mother) to becoming individuals (Moi 256--284). She realizes she has been done an injustice. â€Å"You and papa have committed a great sin against me. It is your fault that I have made nothing of my life.† Nora tells Helmet, â€Å"You don’t understand me, and I have never understood you either—before tonight.† SheShow MoreRelatedA Critics Opinion of a Dolls House1743 Words   |  7 PagesDestiny Maxfield Mrs. Collar Engl. 1302 19 November 2012 A Critic’s Opinion of A Doll’s House In Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House many views could be seen from both sides of the gender world. Critics will argue about the true meaning of the story and why Ibsen wrote the story. The main points of the play that critics discuss are sexuality i.e. feminism, the wrong doing of the father figure, and spiritual revolution. I believe these critics are each right in their own way from my understanding of theRead MoreAnalysis of A Dolls House Essay1108 Words   |  5 Pagesplaywrights transformation of historical reality has on an audience. Henrik Ibsens widely regarded work, A Dolls House, was first introduced in 1879 as a theatrical presentation of human rights. Today, Ibsens work remains as such, although often conveyed as more focused on womens rights. The Norwegian playwrights vision of a seemingly common home is quickly translated through Ibsens use of symbolism, setting, and diction. Symbolism is a key aspect in much of Ibsens writing, muchRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1639 Words   |  7 PagesIn the play A Doll’s House, Henrik Ibsen examines the roles of a woman during the nineteenth century in a male dominated Victorian society. The play is a well-played out journey of the main character, Nora, self-discovery and struggles against the oppression of her husband Torvald and the society he represents. Nora, who is the wife of Torvald Helmer, is the heroine of the play in the end. At the beginning of Act I, the scene is a clear picture of the lifestyle of the Helmer’s household. TheRead More Comparing Edna of Kate Chopins The Awakening and Nora of Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House 1038 Words   |  5 PagesComparing Edna of Kate Chopins The Awakening and Nora of Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House Kate Chopins work, The Awakening, and Henrik Ibsens play, A Dolls House, were written at a time when men dominated women in every aspect of life.   Edna Pontellier, the protagonist in The Awakening, and Nora, the protagonist in A Dolls House, are trapped in a world dominated by men.   The assumed superiority of their husbands traps them in their households.   Edna and Nora share many similarities, yetRead More Comparing A Dolls House and Oedipus Rex Essay1672 Words   |  7 PagesComparing A Dolls House and Oedipus Rex Ibsens drama A Dolls House, serves as an example of the kind of issue-based drama that distinguishes Ibsen from many of his contemporaries. The plays dialogue is not poetic, but very naturalistic, and the characters are recognizable people. Given the sense of modernity which the play possesses it seems unusual to compare it to a Greek tragedy produced more than two-thousand years previously. On closer examination however, thereRead More Essay on Animal Imagery in A Dolls House974 Words   |  4 PagesAnimal Imagery in A Dolls House    Animal imagery in Henrick Ibsens play, A Dolls House is a critical part of the character development of Nora, the protagonist. Ibsen uses creative, but effective, animal imagery to develop Noras character throughout the play. He has Torvald call his wife his little lark(Isben) or sulky squirrel(Isben) or other animal names throughout the play. He uses a lot of bird imagery-calling her many different bird names. The name Torvald uses directlyRead More Symbolism in A Doll’s House Essay949 Words   |  4 PagesHenrik Ibsen’s â€Å"A Doll’s House† is a controversial play focusing on the marriage of Nora and Torvald Helmer. The play is filled with symbols that represent abstract ideas and concepts. These symbols effectively illustrate the inner conflicts that are going on between the characters. Henrik Ibsen’s use of symbolism such as the Christmas tree, the locked mailbox, the Tarantella, Dr. Rank’s calling cards, and the letters allows him to give a powerful portrayal to symbolize aspects of characters andRead MoreComparison of A Dolls House and Antigone1248 Words    |  5 Pagesâ€Å"The Empowered Woman, she moves through the world with a sense of confidence and grace. Her once reckless spirit now tempered by wisdom. Quietly, yet firmly, she speaks her truth without doubt or hesitation and the life she leads is of her own creation.† --Excerpt from ‘The Empowered Woman’ by Sonny Carroll In my mind, Sonny Carroll’s poem perfectly represents what an empowered woman should be; firm, determined and able to stand on her own feet. The characters of Nora and AntigoneRead More Analysis Of Ibsens A Dolls House Essay1839 Words   |  8 PagesA Doll House A critical Analysis When Nora slammed the door shut in her dolls house in 1879, her message sent shockwaves around the world that persist to this day. I must stand quite alone, Nora declared after finding out that her ideal of life was just a imagination of her and that all her life had been build up by others peoples, specifically her husband and her dad ideas, opinions and tastes. Nora is the pampered wife of an aspiring bank manager Torvald Halmer. In a desperate attemptRead More Comparison Between the Characters of Antigone and A Doll’s House1456 Words   |  6 PagesA Comparison Between the Characters of Antigone and A Doll’s House   Ã‚  Ã‚   There have always been fundamental differences between the mentalities of the male and female sexes. At one time, women were considered as a possession of the father or husband. Women were denied participation in public life, they had restricted access to education, and they werent legally allowed to own property. This oppression of women did not prevent them from fighting for, and obtaining, equal rights.   It seems that

Monday, May 11, 2020

President Nixon A Speech By President Of The President

A Speech by the President for the President Danica Adoc California State University, Bakersfield A Speech by the President for the President A speech is often used to deliver information to an audience. However, whether a speech is effective or not depends on the use rhetoric, or the ability to use language in a persuasive way. A desirable use of rhetoric tends to increase the credibility of the speaker while poor rhetoric sets the speaker in a questionable position by the audience. The latter can be demonstrated in the resignation speech of Richard Nixon, which, rather than shock the American people, actually fulfilled their expectations of his departure from the presidency. Richard Nixon was elected as the 37th President of the United States, serving two terms between 1969 and 1974 (â€Å"Biography†, 2016). At the time of the speech, Nixon was facing loss of public support and impeachment over his attempts to conceal any illegal activities involving him and his administration in the Watergate Scandal (â€Å"Biography†, 2016). Rather than face impeachment, Nixon d ecided to resign and issued a public announcement of his resignation to the American people. Ultimately, he intended to leave the presidency by preserving his reputation as much as he could and focusing on his achievements and legacy. In his speech, Nixon (1974) stated, â€Å"I shall resign from the presidency† (para. 8) and that Vice President Ford will replace him as the new President. He thanked thoseShow MoreRelatedPresident Richard Nixon s Speech850 Words   |  4 PagesPersuasion I strongly believe that Nixon s speech should be included in the argument chapter of the next edition of 40 model essay. On November 3, 1969, President Richard Nixon gave a televised address to the nation on his Vietnam War policy called â€Å"Vietnamization†. The speech, which Richard Nixon wrote himself, was given in response to a protest against the Vietnam War in cities across the nation. During his successful campaign for the presidency in 1968, Richard Nixon promised he had a secret planRead MoreEssay on The Watergate Scandal1270 Words   |  6 PagesStates president Richard Nixon re election campaign, and they were caught trying to wiretap the phones. The robbers who tried to wiretap the phones were not successful. more robbers broke into the Watergate building with a new microphone, but a guard noticed that they broke the locks on the doors. The guard called the police as soon as possible, they showed up and caught the crooks red handed and took the to jail. it was n ot completely clear that the crooks were connected to the president RichardRead MoreLyndon B Johnson And The Vietnam War1470 Words   |  6 Pagesbattlefront you are going to be on the hot seat. This is exactly what happened for Lyndon B Johnson amidst the Vietnam War. The year was 1968, with the incumbent President, not running for office anymore. The President of the United States was up for grabs and between the Vice President, Hubert Humphrey and Richard Nixon. Richard Nixon, in order to gain the upper hand in this election, would sabotage peace talks in Vietnam and end up prolonging America’s involvement for another seven years, LyndonRead MoreAmerica s Choice 1960 Presidential Campaign904 Words   |  4 Pageschoice for president? There are plenty of classical case of presidential campaigns in past years. In 1960, the Soviet Union and the United States were in the Cold War. Nevertheless, civil rights and the fight against apartheid and other issues cause a lot of trouble. According to these historical background, there are two politicos began to compete for president: John F. Kennedy, a young and dynamic Massachusetts senator; Nixon, an experienced members of congress. Compared with Kennedy and Nixon beforeRead MoreAmerica s War On Drugs1539 Words   |  7 Pages On June 17th, 1971, President Richard Nixon declared drug abuse to be â€Å"America’s Public Enemy #1† in a press conference in which he called for an â€Å"all out offensive† against this enemy, an initiative that would later be known as America’s War on Drugs. By giving this speech, thus starting â€Å"The War on D rugs,† President Nixon created what would eventually become one of the most catastrophic failures in United States political history. Analysis of the historical events surrounding Nixon’s declarationRead MorePresident Richard M. Nixon1524 Words   |  7 Pageshas been the nation’s leader for two terms, spanning five and a half years; unfortunately one decision causes him to lose the most important seat in the world. He is referred to as ‘The President of the United States’ but to the people of the free world, he was known as President Richard M. Nixon, the only president to ever step down from presidency. His resignation occurred August 9, 1974 about a year after his re-election. Resources say that he resigned so he would not face definite impeachmentRead MorePersuasive Argument For Run Nixon Out Of Office1245 Words   |  5 Pagesto run Nixon out of office On June 17, 1972, G. Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt, members of the Nixon administration, were arrested for the much-publicized scandal of the Watergate burglary. US Representative Barbara Jordan made history on July 28, 1974, with her address on the Articles of Impeachment against then President Richard Nixon and other members of the Nixon house. Jordan explores evidence against the Nixon administration and violations made against the US Constitution by President RichardRead More The Watergate Scandal and the Resignation of President Richard Nixon1720 Words   |  7 PagesThe Watergate Scandal and the Resignation of President Richard Nixon The Watergate Scandal and crisis that rocked the United States began on the early morning of June 17, 1972 with a small-scale burglary and it ended August 9, 1974 with the resignation of Republican President Richard Milhous Nixon. At approximately 2:30 in the morning of June 17, 1972, five burglars were discovered inside the Democratic National Headquarters in the Watergate office building in Washington DC. The burglars,Read MoreRichard Milhous Nixon, 37Th President Of The United States,1505 Words   |  7 Pages  Ã‚  Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th president of the United States, was born January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California. Nixon was one of the most controversial politicians. He used the communist scare of the late forties and early fifties to catapult his career, but as president he eased tension with the Soviet Union and opened relations with Red China. He was president during the civil rights movement and the Vietnam War. Nixon gained valuable experience in international affairs as a new member ofRead MoreTaking a Look at the Watergate Scandal839 Words   |  3 Pageswith the arrest of five men for breaking and entering in the DNC in the Watergate building in Washington D.C. Around this time, President Richard Nixon was running for a re-election, Nixon had a dynamic presidential campaign and advisers, and they were a part of a big political scandal. In May 1972, member of the Nixon’s movement CREEP (Committee to Re-Elect the President) had gone into the DNC Watergate head office and stole disclosed records and tapped the telephones. The monitors did not puzzle

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Principles of Teaching 1 the Relationship of the Taxonomy...

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES Gen. Santos Ave., Upper Bicutan, Taguig City TAGUIG CAMPUS PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING 1 SEED 3043 2ND Semester SY2010-2011 The Relationship of the Taxonomy of Objectives with the Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organizing of Contents Prepared by: GARCIA, JENNIFER A., BSED II-1 Submitted to: DR. JUANITA B. CARLOS March 19, 2011 INTRODUCTION The Relationship of the Taxonomy of Objectives with the Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organizing of Contents is the concept I choose, because I believed that taxonomy of objectives has the important role and the most significant things to consider in selection and organizing of contents. Taxonomy according to The Oxford English†¦show more content†¦| 5-13 14 15-17 18-19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 | PART 1 THOUGHT FOR THE DAY November 7, 2010 â€Å"Actions of men are the best interpreter of their thoughts† Every action and every behavior that we have done, whatever we will be doing, whatever action that will be seen to us is just a product of our thoughts and it will reflect on ourselves as our identity. Whatever actions we’ve done is what we think. So we should be careful of our actions and of our thoughts. This passage is also related to â€Å"actions speak louder than words,† because whatever thoughts we have or whatever we think will be reflected on our actions. This passage affects me much as a student because, as a student I’m dealing with so many people not only in the class but also with other groups within the campus. And as a student who is building an identity I should be very careful with all my decisions and actions. Be good examples to them as I always told them and be a good follower. As a future teacher, I should not practice the thinking of what will always benefits not only for one student but for all my students. So I shouldShow MoreRelated THE IMPACT OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN IMPROVING STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES65118 Words   |  261 Pagesencouragement he provided from start to finish. Secondly, I would like to thank Dr. Remedios for verifying the statistically analysis section of my thesis. I am also deeply grateful to those professors who have taught on the EdD (Singapore) Programme, whose teaching has stimulated many early thoughts and ideas. I wish to acknowledge the contribution of the many hundreds of students of the Singapore Polytechnic, whose participation in the surveys has provided the data that made this study possible. In additionRead MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words   |  1186 Pages Cross Reference of Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Concepts to Text Topics Chapter 1 Modern Project Management Chapter 8 Scheduling resources and cost 1.2 Project defined 1.3 Project management defined 1.4 Projects and programs (.2) 2.1 The project life cycle (.2.3) App. G.1 The project manager App. G.7 Political and social environments F.1 Integration of project management processes [3.1] 6.5.2 Setting a schedule baseline [8.1.4] 6.5.3.1 Setting a resource schedule 6.5.2.4 ResourceRead MoreContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words   |  846 Pages Contemporary Issues in Management Accounting This page intentionally left blank Contemporary Issues in Management Accounting Edited by ALNOOR BHIMANI 1 Great Clarendon Street, Oxford ox2 6dp Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne MexicoRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesand practices of organization. By thoroughly explaining, analyzing and exploring organization theory the book increases the understanding of a field that in recent years has become ever more fragmented. Organization theory is central to managing, organizing and reflecting on both formal and informal structures, and in this respect you will find this book timely, interesting and valuable. Peter Holdt Christensen, Associate Professor, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark McAuley et al.’s book is thought-provokingRead MoreBackground Inditex, One of the Worlds Largest Fashion Distributors, Has Eight Major Sales Formats - Zara, Pull and Bear, Massimo Dutti, Bershka, Stradivarius, Oysho, Zara Home Y Kiddys Class- with 3.147 Stores in 70100262 Words   |  402 PagesThank you also to Hà ¥kan Rodhe, my second supervisor, who has not only provided valuable input related to my research and writing, but who has also been a rich source of advice and inspiration when it comes to many other aspects in life ranging from teaching to parenting. Thank you Hà ¥kan; for your support and for always having a good perspective on what is important in life. A large part of my research was carried out within the realm of the FLIPP research programme (Furthering Life Cycle ConsiderationsRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesOrganizational behavior / Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge. — 15th ed. p. cm. Includes indexes. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-283487-2 ISBN-10: 0-13-283487-1 1 . Organizational behavior. I. Judge, Tim. II. Title. HD58.7.R62 2012 658.3—dc23 2011038674 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 10: 0-13-283487-1 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-283487-2 Brief Contents Preface xxii 1 2 Introduction 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 The Individual 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Diversity in Organizations 39 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 69 EmotionsRead MoreAccounting Information System Chapter 1137115 Words   |  549 PagesCHAPTER 1 ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1.1 The value of information is the difference between the benefits realized from using that information and the costs of producing it. 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However, there are two situationsRead MoreManaging Information Technology (7th Edition)239873 Words   |  960 Pages CONTENTS: CASE STUDIES CASE STUDY 1 Midsouth Chamber of Commerce (A): The Role of the Operating Manager in Information Systems CASE STUDY I-1 IMT Custom Machine Company, Inc.: Selection of an Information Technology Platform CASE STUDY I-2 VoIP2.biz, Inc.: Deciding on the Next Steps for a VoIP Supplier CASE STUDY I-3 The VoIP Adoption at Butler University CASE STUDY I-4 Supporting Mobile Health Clinics: The Children’s Health Fund of New York City CASE STUDY I-5 Read MoreTop 1 Cause for Project Failure65023 Words   |  261 PagesAnish Mathai Mathew [PMP|MBA] Temenos T24 PROGRAM MANAGER at Union National Bank Featured discussion In your experience, what is the TOP #1 cause for Project failure? From experience, the following are the TOP10 causes of Project failure that Mathew can think of (they are not in any kind of order): #1. Lacking Sponsor s Involvement/Ownership #2. Halo Effect (Wrong Man for the Job) #3. Poor HR Management #4. Poor/Inadequate Project Communications #5. Ignoring Project Stakeholders Read MoreMerger and Acquisition: Current Issues115629 Words   |  463 PagesMANAGEMENT ASSET ALLOCATION AND INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENTS DIVERSIFICATION AND PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT OF MUTUAL FUNDS PERFORMANCE OF MUTUAL FUNDS Mergers and Acquisitions Current Issues Edited by GREG N. GREGORIOU and KARYN L. NEUHAUSER Selection and editorial matter  © Greg N. Gregoriou and Karyn L. Neuhauser 2007 Individual chapters  © contributors 2007 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this

Headloss Through a Valve Free Essays

Fluid Mechanics Lab Head Loss Through a Valve April 24, 2012 Abstract This experiment determined the relationship between the head loss through a gate valve and the degree of opening of that valve with varying flow rates. The objective of this experiment was to determine the valve loss coefficient, K, for a specific gate valve as a function of both the pipe Reynolds Number, and the degree of opening. The relationship between the Reynolds Number and the friction factor was constant. We will write a custom essay sample on Headloss Through a Valve or any similar topic only for you Order Now Regardless of what the Reynolds Number was, the friction factor remained the same. This means that the valve head loss coefficient, K, only depended on the degree of opening of the gate valve. As the valve is slowly turned closed, the Major Head Loss due to friction along the pipe, decreases, and the Minor Head Loss, due to the friction through the gate valve, increases. There is a positive linear relationship between the Reynolds Number and the head loss coefficient. The slope of this linear relationship showed that as the flow rate increases, the velocity increases which means the Reynolds Number gets bigger and the head loss coefficient increases. Therefore, the higher the flow and the smaller the degree of opening of the gate valve, the greater the head loss becomes through the gate valve. Table of contents Abstract†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ i 1Introduction1 1. 1Background1 1. 2Theory1 1. 3Objective1 2Apparatus and Supplies1 3Procedures4 4Equations4 5Experimental Results5 6Error Analysis9 7Conclusions9 8Recommendations for Further Studies10 9References10 APPENDIX Table of Figures Figure 21: Pressure Differential Gauge ? p. 2 Figure 22: Weighing Tank with Dump Valve open. 3 Figure 23: Pressure Differential Gauge between Valve Set-up3 Table 51: Constants and given values. 5 Table 52: Measured Data. 5 Table 53: Volumetric Flow, Velocity, Reynolds #, Head Loss Coefficient. 6 Table 54: Real values of K, Major Head Loss, Minor Head Loss. 6 Introduction Background Gate valves are frequently used when constructing and fitting pipes. They provide the capability to shut off specific lines so that repairs or renovations can be made without having to turn off the main supply lines. Although these valves are useful, they also disturb the normal flow and cause friction. Theory The head loss coefficient, K, for a gate valve is related to the Minor Head Loss, Hlm, where Hlm=V22gK. The total head loss in the pipe is divided into two parts: the Major Head Loss, Hf, due to the pipe friction over length L, and the Minor Head Loss. Using the Bernoulli’s energy equation, the coefficient, K, can be found: K=2g? PV2? -fLD. Objective The objective of this experiment was to determine the valve loss coefficient, K, for a specific gate valve as a function of both the pipe Reynolds Number, and the degree of opening. Apparatus and Supplies * 1 Weighing Tank with Dump Valve ( ±0. 5 lb) * 2 Stop Watches ( ±0. 01 sec) * Galvanized Iron pipe 27 inches ( ±0. 03125 in) long with a diameter of 1. 1 inches ( ±0. 0005 in) * 1 Pressure Differential Gauge ( ±0. 05 psi) * 1 Valve located in between the Pressure Differential Gauge on Galvanized Iron Pipe Figure 21: Pressure Differential Gauge ? p. Weighing Tank Dump Valve Figure 22: Weighing Tank with Dump Valve open. Figure 23: Pressure Differential Gauge between Valve Set-up Procedures 1. Measure the distance between the upstream and downstream pressure tabs. 2. Turn the handle on the gate valve to determine how many turns exist between fully-opened and fully-closed. 3. Turn on the pump and open the dump valve in the weighing tank. 4. Turn the gate valve so that it is completely open. 5. Record the Pressure Difference 6. Close the dump valve in the weighing tank. 7. Start and stop the stopwatches over a 100 lb difference and record the times. 8. Open the dump valve in the weighing tank and allow water to drain into the sump. 9. Change the flow of water. Do not change the gate valve. 10. Repeat steps 5-8. 11. Turn the gate valve to 75% open. 12. Change the flow of water. 13. Repeat steps 5-9 a total of three (3) times. 14. Turn the gate valve to 50% open. 15. Repeat steps 12 and 13. 16. Turn the gate valve to 25% open. 17. Repeat steps 13 and 13. Equations Head Loss Coefficient: K=2g? pV2? -fLD Major Head Loss: hf=fLDV22g Minor Head Loss: hlm=KV22g Reynolds Number: Re=VD? Area of Pipe2: A=? 4D2 Velocity: V=QA1 Volumetric Discharge: Q=? W? t*? Experimental Results Table 51: Constants and given values. Table 52: Measured Data. The friction factor f=0. 049 was calculated based on Ks/D and the Reynolds Number. Table 53: Volumetric Flow, Velocity, Reynolds #, Head Loss Coefficient. Table 54: Real values of K, Major Head Loss, Minor Head Loss. Error Analysis There were some values calculated for the valve loss coefficient, K, which were negative. This is impossible because a negative K value would give you an overall gain in energy as water flows through the valve according to Bernoulli’s energy equation. According to the equation used, gravity and the specific weight of water are constant. The length and diameter of the pipe along with the velocity had relative errors due to human accuracy, but all of these were negligible. This leaves the friction factor, f, and the pressure differential readings. The calculated value of the friction factor was given and was probably over estimated and the absolute roughness of the pipe was less. The accuracy of the pressure differential gauge was also a possible source of error. Looking at the data, the first five readings all had negative K values and they all had very low pressure differential readings. The accuracy of the readings become more inaccurate the closer the readings are to the endpoints of the scale. Conclusions According to the Moody Diagram and the absolute roughness stated, the relationship between the Reynolds Number and the friction factor was constant. Regardless of what the Reynolds Number was, the friction factor remained the same. This means that the valve head loss coefficient, K, was only depended on the degree of opening of the gate valve. As the valve is slowly turned closed, the Major Head Loss due to friction along the pipe, decreases, and the Minor Head Loss, due to the friction through the gate valve, increases. There is a positive linear relationship between the Reynolds Number and the head loss coefficient. The slope of this linear relationship showed that as the flow rate increases, the velocity increases which means the Reynolds Number gets bigger and the head loss coefficient increases. Therefore, the higher the flow and the smaller the degree of opening of the gate valve, the greater the head loss becomes through the gate valve. Recommendations for Further Studies The experiment could set minimum and maximum standards for readings off the pressure differential gauge. For each valve reading, making the minimum pressure difference greater than 1. 0 PSI and less than 9 PSI would ensure that there are no endpoint inaccuracies. References Giles, Ranald V. , Jack B. Evett, and Cheng Liu. Schaum’s Outline of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2009. Print. Appendix How to cite Headloss Through a Valve, Papers

Principle of Intergenerational and Intra-Generational Equity

Question: Describe about the Principle of intergenerational and intra-generational equity under international environmental law? Answer: Introduction: We used to hear from our parents and grandparents that at their time the world was different, the atmosphere at that time was much better, the taste of fruits and vegetables were better and there was no such hot weather like now days, and many other things. Even if we can remember our childhood, we will be able to differentiate that world from this one. This indicates that over the timeframe, we are going through lots of changes on daily basis. Throughout this study, such changes have been explored with reference to intergenerational and intra-generational equity under international environmental law. Getting Tired of Never-Ending Assignments? Hire an Expert from MyAssignmenthelp and Get the Necessary Assignment Help at a Reasonable Rate. Research aims: So, a question arises that what has happened to the world now, why the world is changing? How do we can keep the earth in a stable and good condition? The answer lies in two concepts, those are, the concept of Intergenerational Equity and intra-generational equity. These principals deal with using of earths resources for this generation and for the future generation, and its impact upon the state of earth. This equitable principals are based upon the concept of sustainable development, it means using of earths resources in such a manner that it can meet the present needs as well as the future needs of the living creatures. Research Objectives: These principals are universally acceptable. In this regard another ambiguity may arise that whether these principals are soft laws or customary international laws. A famous phrase is used in this respect, that is common but differentiated responsibilities this principals signifies valuable perspective in respect of controversies in relation to the environment and economic developments. Background of the problem: Sustainable development provides not only man made wealth but it also provides wealth made by nature. It also concern about the quality of life of the human beings, man-made wealth continues improvement of quality of life but it must be supported by the natural wealth. Sustainable development was introduced for the first time by the United Nations with a view to accomplish three aspects of development, those are, environmental protection, economic development and social development, this is affirmed by the United Nation Development Program. United Nation concentrating on managing and protecting the natural resources for the development of social and economical aspects, this is much required to accomplish the goals of the concept of sustainable development. One of the primary object of the concept of intergenerational equity is the development of resources by one generation enhance the opportunity of economic sustainability for the future generation. Literature review: Intergenerational Equity: It signifies the rights and interests of the present and future generation regarding the renewable and non renewable resources of earth. Many contemporary international instruments deals with the use of the resources available and to make them available for future generation. Peoples have recognized the value and importance of the resources available and what may happened in future if the resources will not be available. The concept of sustainable development has been introduced which refers the use of resources should be done in such a manner that those resources shall also be available to meet the future needs. United Nation General Assembly has defined sustainable development as the development which meets the needs of the present without compromising with the availability of resources to meet the needs of the future generation. Sustainable development provides not only man made wealth but it also provides wealth made by nature. It also concern about the quality of life of the human beings, man-made wealth continues improvement of quality of life but it must be supported by the natural wealth. Sustainable development was introduced for the first time by the United Nations with a view to accomplish three aspects of development, those are, environmental protection, economic development and social development, this is affirmed by the United Nation Development Program. United Nation concentrating on managing and protecting the natural resources for the development of social and economical aspects, this is much required to accomplish the goals of the concept of sustainable development. One of the primary object of the concept of intergenerational equity is the development of resources by one generation enhance the opportunity of economic sustainability for the future generation. Intergenerational equity contains inter-temporal implications in respect of the utilization of the resources, it tends to a fair utilization of resources by human generations in past, present and future, it tries to construct a balance of consumption of resources by existing societies and the future generations. Inter-temporal aspects tries to make a balance between the distribution of resources and recycling of resources to a good extend, which is a very concerning issue due to the growing degradation of environment and depletion of resources. This concept has been supported by the domestic laws, The decision of the Supreme court of Philippines in the case of Minors Oposa v Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, was that each generation has the responsibility for future generations to preserve natural resources for full enjoyment of the natural ecology. The concept of intergenerational equity promotes socio-economic development and it makes a bridge betwee n social and economic development with environmental protection. The development of sustainable development as a customary international law is also has been described by the Vice President of ICJ, in Gabeikovo-Nagvmaros Project, they claimed that sustainable development is not a concept, it is far ahead of that, as it has become the modern customary international law. 3rd principal of Rio declaration mentioned about the concept of intergenerational equity, it was stated that development must be done in such a manner, as it equably meet the environmental and developmental needs of the present as well as the future generation. The main object of this principal is that to make sure the rights of the future generation upon the non-renewable resources, which might be abused by the present generation. 15th Principal of the Rio declaration has been documented as the most significant part as to sustainable development; it states that as per the capabilities of the states, precautionary steps should be taken by the states to ensure the protection of the environment. Any stride which may cause environmental degradation should be neglected. In other words it can be said that the legislation and the appropriate government is empowered to prevent and attack the reasons of environmental degradation. In the 16th Principal of the Rio declaration it is stated that the National Powers should emphasis the promotion of the internationalization of environmental cost and the use of fiscal instrument, in principal, the polluter should be responsible for the restoration of such pollution and the polluter may be compelled to compensate for that environmental degradation. Intra-generational Equity: Intra-generational equity is different from intergenerational equity. it deals with the equality among the same generations as far as the utilization of resources are concern. It includes fair utilization of global resources among the human beings of the present generation. The concept of intra-generational equity provides rights and duties to every person of a single generation to use and take care of the renewable and non renewable resources moderately among the members of the generation. In a developing country like India the rule of itragenerational equity is applicable to certain extend, as in this kind of developing countries more resources are required for development of the country and to ensure economic stability. Industrialization is the key for the development of these countries which requires more and more renewable and non renewable resources, in that that the legislature must enact strict environmental laws in relation to the implementation of the rules specified in the doctrine of intra-generational equity, and it must be firmly interpreted by the judiciary system of the nation. The administration of every country must be very conscious regarding the implementation of the rules framed by the legislature in relation to the protection of environment and the laws related to the execution of the rules in respect of the intra-generational equity. The resources which are not preserved for the future generation and are available for the current generation must be equally distributed among all the members of the present generation. To a certain extend it becomes very difficult regulate those resources among all the members of the generation due to national territories, international provinces, condition of the international society and many more, but it may be done impliedly, globalization can make things better and easier for proper implementation of the doctrine. Intergenerational equity and intra-generational equity both requires sustainability. Proper distribution of renewable and non-renewable resources is the key of the concept of sustainable development. Where intergenerational equity tries to distribute among present and future generation; intra-generational equity deals with the distribution of resources between the members of the same generation. Due to the lack of proper execution of the doctrine of sustainable development, the present environment of the entire earth is in question, the rule of intergenerational equity and intra-generational equity must be followed to save the world from the present situation, global warming is one of the main reasons for degradation of the environment, it not only harms the environment of earth but also injures surviving ability of the living creature. Methodology: The study followed qualitative analysis to evaluate both intergenerational equity and intra-generational equity, in the context of environmental law. Here, various past research works have been examined to reach into a meaningful conclusion. Analysis: The judicial system of every country is also empowered to promote the canon of sustainable development. Lagislature of every country has introduced many enactment as laws for protection and restoration of environmental degradation, by virtue of that the judiciary plays a very significant role in interpreting those enactments in relation to the doctrine of Sustainable development. In India, most number of cases relating to environment comes before the Ld. Courts Under Art. 226 and Art. 32 of the Constitution, which refers writ petitions which is also known as Public Interest Litigation (PIL), the first case on which the Ld. Court has emphasizes its jurisdiction in relation to sustainable development in the case of Vellore Citizen Welfare Forum vs. Union Of India, in this case the Supreme court held that there is no vacillation in promoting the precautionary principal and the polluter pays principal, these are also the part of the environmental laws in India. The court also held that making compensation by the polluter is also a part of the doctrine of sustainable development. A principal arises from Veil Of Ignorance by Rawls, that from the actual position every generation has the responsibility to defend the renewable and non renewable resources for those the original position would not get into knowledge, which generation they are going to be a part of. Every state should enhance the environmental policies in such a manner that it does not unfavorably affect the development of undeveloped and developing countries, in present as well as in the future it is also not authorized to hamper the better conditions for living for all. Conclusion: Proper distribution of renewable and non-renewable resources are not enough to ensure the environmental security, proper disposal of those resources after utilization and recycling of the available resources are also very much important for execution of the laws framed for the protection of environment and promotion of sustainable development. Sustainable development now become necessity for the present condition of the earth, otherwise our future generation shall be deprived of the resources and facilities, which we are availing for us, the resources available for our generation are to be equally distributed among all of us as the member of the current generation. Intergenerational and intra-generational equity are two hands of the doctrine of sustainable equity, the concept of intra-generational equity posses a procedure in respect of the allocation of resources among the members of a generation. References 3 Allan V Kneese,. in , , 1988. Baker, S,Sustainable development. in , London, Routledge, 2006. Carlisle, A, 'The United Nations Conference on The Human Environment Stockholm 1972'. inThe Forestry Chronicle, 48, 1972, 118-118. Cooper, D, J Palmer,The environment in question. in , London, Routledge, 1992. Dasgupta, S, T Mitra, 'Intergenerational Equity and Efficient Allocation of Exhaustible Resources'. inInternational Economic Review, 24, 1983, 133. Diwan, P, P Diwan,Environment administration, law and judicial attitude. in , New Delhi, Deep Deep Publications, 1992. Galli, R, 'The United Nations Development Program, "Development," and Multinational Corporations'. inLatin American Perspectives, 3, 1976, 65-85. Islam, S, A Jolley, 'Sustainable development in Asia: the current state and policy options'. inNatural Resources Forum, 20, 1996, 263-279. Kiss, A, D Shelton,Guide to international environmental law. in , Boston, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2007. Minors Oposa v Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. in , , 1994. Pagell, M, S Dobson, I Gavronski, 'Sustainable Operations'. inScholarpedia, 5, 2010, 10421. Rambousky, R, M Weiss, H Mysz, M Moske, K Samwer, 'Structural Relaxation and Viscous Flow in Amorphous ZrAlCu Above and Below the Glass Transition Temperature'. inMSF, 225-227, 1996, 83-88. Rijadi, D,Marine pollution from tanker oil spills in the Straits of Malacca. in , , 1994. 'The law and administration relating to protection of the environment'. in , 6, 1974, 75. Thornton, J, S Beckwith,Environmental law. in , London, Sweet Maxwell, 1997. Tiwari, H,Environmental law. in , Faridabad, Allahabad Law Agency, 2005. Un.org, 'A/RES/42/187 Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development'. in , , 2007, https://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/42/ares42-187 [accessed 10 February 2015]. Vellore Citizen Welfare Forum vs. Union Of India. in , , 1996. Vojnovic, I, 'Intergenerational and Intragenerational Equity Requirements for Sustainability'. inEnvir. Conserv., 22, 1995, 223. Vojnovic, I, 'Intergenerational and Intragenerational Equity Requirements for Sustainability'. inEnvir. Conserv., 22, 1995, 223. Weiss, E, 'Our Rights and Obligations to Future Generations for the Environment'. inThe American Journal of International Law, 84, 1990, 198.

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Strategic Planning at the Chronicle Gazette Essay Example

Strategic Planning at the Chronicle Gazette Essay Student Name: Lee Cheuk Fung Jerff Student ID No. : LE0002110 Course No. : MGT 195 Course Name : Business Policy and Strategy Title of the Assignment: Strategic Planning at The Chronicle Gazette Date of submission: 8 DEC 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 3 2. State of the newspaper publishing industry today 2. 1Data on Circulation and Revenue 4-6 2. 2 Top 20 U. S. Newspapers Print Circulation 7-8 3 Why newspapers are facing declining circulations and revenues? 3. 1 External Assessment . 11 Rise of the Web , Internet and free information 9 3. 12 Economic downturn put company into the trouble 9 3 Internal Assessment of The Chronicle Gazette 4. 13 Strengths 10 4. 14 Weaknesses 10 4 Strategies in publishing industry to cope with the Challenges 11,12 5 Steps to deal with the challenge 13 6. 1 Short-term steps 6. 2 Long-term steps Strategic Planning at The Chronicle Gazette 1. Introduction The Chronicle Gazette is a leading newspaper in the United States with a circulation of 225,000 customers. Over the past few years, it has been facing a decline in its customer base and revenues. This is mainly due to the increasing dominance of the Internet as a means of disseminating information and news. Susan Feinman, the publisher of The Chronicle Gazette, noted the criticalness of the problem and worried this will become the 21st century equivalent of buggy whip manufacturers. The company is not looking for band-aid solutions but an insight of all the challenges and to work out an effective business strategy. We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Planning at the Chronicle Gazette specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Planning at the Chronicle Gazette specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Planning at the Chronicle Gazette specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer As The Chronicle Gazette has been a steady decline in subscriptions and revenues, this report will present the strategic vision of where the newspaper publishing industry stands today and where it is headed over the next decade. 3. State of the newspaper publishing industry today The U. S. newspaper industry is in the midst of a historic restructuring, buffeted by a deep recession that is battering crucial advertising revenues, long-term structural challenges as readership to free news and entertainment on the Internet, and heavy debt burdens weighing down some major media companies. As the distress mounts – seven U. S. newspaper companies have filed for bankruptcy in the past years – lawmakers are debating possible legislation to assist the industry. Additionally, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) will hold a series of workshops in 2009 to look at challenges facing newspapers, television, and radio in the Internet age. There are now about 1,400 daily newspapers in the United States and thousands of community papers, which generally publish weekly or biweekly. A handful of papers, including the Wall Street Journal, USA TODAY, and the New York Times, have a national print readership topping a million or more. The top 50 papers account for about a third of circulation, among them the big city papers that had some of the largest circulation declines in 2008. Overall, the newspaper industry, including printers, reporters, advertising salespeople and other personnel, was a roughly $50 billion business in 2002, according to Census Bureau data, employing about 400,000 people. Over the past few years, there has been a steady decline in the readership of newspapers. Anincreasing number of people are using the Internet to read and view news online for free. Due tothe advancements in Internet, people have free access to news and information online twentyfour hours a day and seven days a week. The news content is available in real time and can beaccessed anytime anywhere in the world. The majority of these online news providers do not levy a fee. As a result, the number of readers willing to pay for news content is reducing and this has a direct impact on the sales of newspapers. 2. 1Data on Circulation and Revenue The following tables and data demonstrating the decline of print circulation and revenue of the newspaper industry A) U. S. Newspapers Circulation in the last decade U. S. Newspapers Circulation forecast Starting decline from the early 90’s (B) Top 20 U. S. Newspapers Print Circulation (Six-Month Period Ending in March 2009) Daily PrintSix Months NewspaperCirculationEnding Mar 2009 USA TODAY 2,113,725 -7. 46% The Wall Street Journal 2,082,189 0. 61% The New York Times 1,039,031-3. 55% Los Angeles Times 723,181 -6. 55% Th e Washington Post 665,383 -1. 16% New York Daily News 602,857 -14. 26% New York Post 558,140 -20. 55% Chicago Tribune 501,202 -7. 47% Houston Chronicle 425,138 -13. 96% The Arizona Republic 389,701 -5. 72% The Denver Post 371,728 NA Newsday 368,194 -3. 01% The Dallas Morning News 331,907 -9. 88% Minneapolis Star-Tribune 320,076 -0. 71% Chicago Sun-Times 312,141 -0. 04% San Francisco Chronicle 312,118 -15. 72% The Boston Globe 302,638 -13. 68% Cleveland Plain Dealer 291,630 -11. 70% Detroit Free Press 290,730 -5. 90% The Philadelphia Inquirer 288,298 -13. 72% Source: Nielsen Online and Editor Publisher. (C) Newspapers Advertising Revenue (D) Top 25 U. S. Newspapers Circulations As of mar 2011 Why newspapers are facing declining circulations and revenues? 4. 2 External Assessment 3. 11 Rise of the Web , Internet and free information The key challenge of traditional newspaper are too much free information from everywhere, internet , web, free newspaper and app. People can know all the things though the forum of a website. And the development of iphone , ipad, and smartsphone let the electronic reading grow fast. Prin t circulation for daily papers fell by 13. 5% from 2001 to 2008, and 17. 3% for Sunday editions. Losses are mounting. Average daily newspaper print irculation fell 7% alone during the six-month period ending March 31, 2009, compared too the same period in 2008 As print circulation declines, online readership is soaring. U. S. newspaper websites averaged more than 73 million individual visitors a month in the first quarter of 2009, up 10. 5% from the same period in 2008. Newspapers are attracting online readers from well beyond their local communities including other cities and countries. Newspaper executives point to surging online readership as an endorsement of their product, saying public interest in news has increased, not diminished. But readership trends are complex, as habits and preferences evolve in response to the enormous array of information available on the Internet, television, and through devices such as hand-held readers and cell phones. Though readers want news, they do not necessarily want it from a traditional paper, and are using multiple sources. For example, there is just one newspaper in the top five news websites. The biggest news websites, in descending order are : MSNBC Digital Network, CNN Digital Network, Yahoo! News, AOL News, and NYTimes. com. MSNBC had nearly twice the online audience of the New York Times. Now is the technology era, television, radio and internet is more popular. The reader can more easily get some information and up to the minute news in them. They are the most threats to newspaper publishing industry. The Chronicle Gazette has the fixed supplier to furnish to the paper and printing inks, also long-term cooperation between us. Therefore, the bargaining power of suppliers is in medium-high level. Many competitors exist in the market. Also, the substitute products come out, such as Yahoo, MSNBC, Hotmail and 24-hours cable news, etc. In additional, they are free. The readers will towards them. Therefore the bargaining power of customers is high. Other so-called aggregators run websites that mix links to newspapers’ stories with some original content, and bloggers frequently mingle newspaper and other reporting with their own commentary and insights. Increasingly individual stories are displayed on the Web as discrete products, separate from a broader newspaper. About 22% of readers who visited newspaper websites arrived indirectly, by first clicking onto online search engines like Google, with another big share arriving through the front page of Web portals like Yahoo or MSN, according to one analysis. A separate 22% came from traffic moving between media and news websites, containing links to specific stories. Once readers arrive at newspaper websites, they spend less time there, on average, than print readers spend reading a traditional newspaper, though some studies show that time online has been increasing. Web readers spend an average of 53 minutes a week with newspapers – or just under eight minutes a day. It is also found, however, that 22% of readers had recently dropped a paid print newspaper or magazine subscription because they could get the paper free online. 3. 2 Economic downturn put company into the trouble The financial crisis in 2008 and the European debt problem let the newspaper industry is in trouble. Some large newspaper companies took on significant debt shortly before the economic downturn hit. Legacy costs are a complicating factor. Many newspapers have traditional, defined-benefit pension plans, which now appear underfunded due to large losses in mar ket investments. It will have to make bigger cash contributions to its pension plans in coming years than previously expected, due to poor market returns and changes in pension law. The company cautioned investors that â€Å"the contributions will place additional strain on the company’s liquidity needs. Investors have soured on newspapers. Some large newspaper companies saw their stock prices drop by more than 80% last year – far beyond the overall decline in the publishing industry and various stock indices. Newspaper stock prices rebounded a bit in 2009, but are still near historic lows. With revenues declining and their ability to raise new capital impaired, some newspaper companies are in danger of breaching financing agreements with their lenders. If that happens, lenders could terminate lines of credit and call in existing loans. 3 Internal Assessment of The Chronicle Gazette 4. 1 Strengths * Good reputation on brand name for good quality * Accumulated significant market share * With experienced and professional workforce * Conservative corporate investment policy which had minimized lost during the economic recession * Top Managements all have the will to change and are ready for transformation 4. 2 Weaknesses Deficient in proactive action to the challenge of Internet and Web threats * Without a focus work team to nurture innovative ideas and develop new products * Inadequate of interaction with audiences in both online website and traditional print newspaper and so can have updated news. * Insufficient technology knowledge and experience in terms of people and equipments * A rigid hierarchy organizational structure which impede employees’ motivation to propose new ideas or changes 5. Strategies in publishing industry to cope with the Challenges The newspaper industry in the United States is faced with multiple challenges of reducedreadership, increased costs and competition from new media companies, such as Google. Amajority of the newspapers have online versions of their editions on websites. They have alsoother measures to increase circulation and improve profitability. Newspapers have increased the prices for both the subscriptions and single buy purchase. They are also analyzing the markets they serve to understand the cost-benefit dynamic of each market. As a result, some newspapers have cut back on circulation to remote areas where the revenues earned are more than the cost of delivery. The Wall Street Journal is one of the leading newspapers in the United States, which has changed its market strategy and business model to overcome the challenges in the publishing industry. Through its website, www. wsj. com, the paper provides online access of its news content to readers. As of April 2010, the Wall Street Journal had 414,025 e-subscriptions. Though the website is available online, not all of the content is free. The Journal has formulated a mixed price strategy where it provides both free and paid content. The popular sections of the news content, such as politics, sports, arts and entertainment is free. Niche coverage such as editorials, opinions and articles on business and financial topics can be viewed only for a fee. Indepth coverage, analysis, opinions and reviews are available only to paid users(PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2010). By adopting this strategy of free and paid access, the WallStreet Journal has been able to increase its e-readership base. The free access to popular content attracts more traffic on its website. This brings in more advertising revenues and increases profitability. At the same time, it helps in building a relationship with new readers. They are aware of the useful content available on wsj. com and are willing to pay for more in-depth coverage and analysis. Another important measure taken by the Wall Street Journal is embracing the digital revolution and becoming a part of it. The Wall Street Journal is available on Apple’s iPad. This move helps the Journal to widen its market and tap younger readers who are technologically savvy. As of June 2010, the Journal had sold more than 10,000 subscriptions and generated $2. million in revenues from the iPad (Business Insider, Inc. , 2010). There are companies at the other end of the spectrum in the newspaper industry who have adopted drastic measures to cope with the challenges. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer was facing significant losses for a few years. In 2008, the paper’s losses amounted to $14 million. As aresult, i ts owner The Hearst Corporation decided to shut down its print operations (GuardianNews and Media Limited, 2010). The Company had to make the hard decision of stopping publication of the 146-year old newspaper. It stopped delivery to nearly 117,600 weekday readers (Hearst Seattle Media, LLC, 2010). In March 2009, the Seattle Post-Intelligencer rolled out its final print edition. It decided to publish only the online version, www. seattlepi. com of the paper. The paper reduced its staff headcount drastically from 165 to 20 (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2010). Since the paper transformed into an entirely digital web format, its website, www. seattlepi. com, has had 4 million visitors per month with 40 million page views. With a reduced headcount, the website covers major topics, such as politics, sports and local happenings by itself. It also sources stories through wire services and other news agencies. The website also makes use of 150 local bloggers for regional content (World Editors Forum, 2010). 6. Steps to deal with the challenge 7. 1. Short-term steps For the short-term, The Chronicle Gazette should study its organization structure and ensure that the human capital is being effectively used in the business. And it will publish the edition tabloid for free. And we will recruit the new employee have experience in technology, he will establish the E-newspaper and for future technology and internet issue. . 2. Long-term steps Adopt a multimedia mindset, viewing the business as a portfolio of products and services with different business models, pricing and distributions strategiesWe establish email and discussion area in our web-site for the reader offer the information. First of all, it is to attract much more reader to our platform. Second, we will know their favorite orientation in they provided the data. T hird, it can increase the subject in our newspaper and E-newspaper by reader offered data.